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When their rule ended, Pola came under the rule of the Exarchate of Ravenna (540–751).
During this period Pola prospered and became the major port of the Byzantine fleet and integral part of the Byzantine Empire.
In addition to war, the plague, malaria and typhoid ravaged the city.
By the 1750s there were only 3,000 inhabitants left in ancient city, an area now covered with weeds and ivy.
The town was taken in 1148 by the Venetians and in 1150 Pola swore allegiance to the Republic of Venice, thus becoming a Venetian possession.
For centuries thereafter, the city's fate and fortunes were tied to those of Venetian power.
It was conquered by the Pisans in 1192 but soon reconquered by the Venetians.
Pola became the seat of the elective counts of Istria until 1077.
As Pola had sided with the Pisans, the city was sacked by the Venetians in 1243.
It was destroyed again in 1267 and again in 1397 when the Genoese defeated the Venetians in a naval battle. This decay was accelerated by the infighting of local families: the ancient Roman Sergi family and the Ionotasi (1258–1271) and the clash between Venice and Genoa for the control of the city and its harbour (late 13th and 14th centuries).
Great classical constructions were built of which a few remain.
A great amphitheatre, Pula Arena, was constructed between 27 BC – 68 AD, much of it still standing to this day.
During the civil war of 42 BC of the triumvirate of Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus against Caesar's assassins Brutus and Cassius, the town took the side of Cassius, since the town had been founded by Cassius Longinus, brother of Cassius. It was soon rebuilt at the request of Octavian's daughter Iulia and was then called Colonia Pietas Iulia Pola Pollentia Herculanea.